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Fort McIntosh
Its Times and Men
By Daniel Agnew, LL. D.
Courtesy of Little Beaver Historical Society


FORT McINTOSH was built during the most important period of the Indian War in the west, in the last quarter ,of the Eighteenth Century. Time is fast burying its memorials, and soon nothing will remain except scattered and confused materials, without form or order to make them intelligible. The history of Fort McIntosh is so interwoven with that of Fort Pitt and the west, they cannot be separated, while together, they form an interesting feature of the past. So much therefore of general interest, as bears upon Fort McIntosh, is necessarily included. It has been taken from accurate and undoubted sources, untouched by the wand of the imagination. Its purpose is to preserve in an intelligible form so much of these as can be found, and will be generally interesting.

This memorial is written in aid of a Monumental Association, to preserve the site and the memory of the Fort, to which purpose the proceeds are to be devoted.

Beaver, September, 1893.

This Fort was built by General Lachlan McIntosh, in the autumn of 1778, on the right bank of the Ohio river, and upon the high bluff where the town of Beaver now stands. It was a Place marked by important events in the last century.

The circumstances which led to its construction cannot be fairly understood without a knowledge of the western territory as then existing. It was wild and uninhabited, except by hostile Indian tribes, controlled first by France, and then by Great Britain, Detroit being the center of influence of each in turn.

The events leading to its erection will be briefly sketched. France having entered the St. Lawrence at an early- day, passed upward, settling Acadia, and founding Quebec, Montreal, and other towns on the river. Pursuing her way northwestward by the Ottawa river, she was first led to the discovery of the upper lakes, leaving Ontario and Erie to the left. As a consequence, her subjects and her missionaries entered on the territories bounding on Lakes George, Huron, Michigan and Superior. Making friends with the Indians, they spread over the northern country, reaching and partly crossing the Mississippi. Here these representatives of France, priest and chevalier, labored among them-for example, Mesnard, Le Carron, Allouez, Marquette, Joliet, La Salle, Hennepin, Frontenac, Champlain, and others, imprinting their names upon the soil on which they trod.

From this "coign of vantage," then undisputed by any European power, they carried forward their conquests along the Illinois, Wabash and Ohio rivers; and borne onward upon the bosom of the "Father of Waters," finally came into touch with Spain in the south. Thus the interior of the continent was the first to be reached by Frenchmen, and the lillies of France planted there. In this spreading of the French dominion, the good will of the Indians was generally cultivated. In the beginning France was largely left in ignorance of Ontario and Erie by her divergence up the Ottawa, and by the bold front of the warlike Iroquois, the Five Nations, afterwards known as the Six Nations, when joined by the Tuscaroras from south. These warlike tribes occupied central and northern New York, extending westward and northward, and., reaching to the St. Lawrence. They were known as the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagos, Cayugas and Senecas, finally joined by the Tuscaroras.

Afterwards descending Lakes Huron and St. Clair, and finding, the straits leading into Lake Erie, France founded Detroit, which became the center of her western influence, and from which she controlled the Indian tribes, occupying what are now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and. Michigan. It was not until nearly the middle of the 18th century she reached Presque Isle, (now Erie), and took possession of the surrounding region, reaching the Allegheny river, then called by them the Ohio. She planted forts at Presque Isle, Le Boueff, on upper French Creek, and Venango, at its mouth.

France claimed the territory to the main Ohio, under an alleged discovery of the "La Belle Rivieur," by the Sieur La Salle, about sixty years befo e reaching Presque Isle, and was determined to hold possession even by force of arms. In the year 1749, she sent an officer named Celeron down the Allegheny and Ohio, to plant there the evidence of her title. This she did by burying along these streams leaden plates asserting her dominion. One of these plates, dated August 1.6, 1749, was dug up at the mouth of the Muskingum river, and another at Point Pleasant. A third was found at the Mouth of French Creek, on the Allegheny, the "Ohio," as that river was called by them.

The following is a translation of the last, viz:

"In the year 1749, reign of Louis XV, King of France, we Celeron, Commandant of a detatchment by Monsieur, the Marquis of Gallisonier, Commander in Chief of New France; to establish tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have buried this plate at the confluence of Loradakoin, this 29th of July, near the river Ohio, otherwise Beautiful River, as a monument of renewal of possession, which we have taken of the said river, and all its tributaries, and of all land on both sides, as far as the sources of said rivers; inasmuch as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed this possession, and maintained it by their arms and by treaties, especially those of Ryrwick, Utrecht, and Aix la Chapelle."

In the year 1753, Major Washington was sent by the Governor of Virginia to the forts on French Creek, to learn the purpose of the French in building them. In consequence of his information, early in the following year Virginia troops were sent to occupy the junction of the rivers at the head of the main Ohio, Virginia, at that time claiming, the surrounding territory.

The French Governor at Detroit, learning from the visit of Washington and the attempt to hold the head of the Ohio, the intention of Great Britain to contest the claim of France, sent down the Allegheny a large force under Monsieur Coutrecouer, consisting of 300 canoes; 1,000 French and Indians, and 18 cannon, which dispersed the Virginia troops at the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny, and built Fort DuQuesne, named after the French Governor. Here France and England met in arms, and it now becomes necessary to take up the English side.

As early as 1620, at Plymouth, in Massachusetts, and a few years earher on the James river, in Virginia, the colonists from Great Britain began the settlements on the Atlantic coast, extending thence north and south. But the vast range of the Allegheny mountains, and the hostility of the Indians, long prevented the English from passing beyond this great mountain barrier into the western territory, their first ventures being south of the Ohio into the Kentucky region. It was nearly the middle of the 18th century that the designs of France becoming suspected, measures were taken to oppose her schemes and to prevent the Indian tribes occupying Western Pennsylvania, and the Ohio territory from taking part with France.

Conrad Weiser, a. citizen of Berks county, Pennsylvania, a surveyor, familiar with some of the Indian tongues, was sent by the President and Council of Pennsylvania to learn the feelings of the tribes north of the Ohio. Setting out on the 11th of August, 1748, and crossing the Mountains he passed through the "Clearfields" (now Clearfield county,) thence to the Kiskiminetas, and crossing the Ohio, (the Allegheny,) he came to the Beaver, visiting the Indian towns thereon; going thence to the main Ohio and up it to Logstown. He saw many Indians of different tribes, held councils with them, and learned their relations to the French.

In 1751, George Croghan sent out by Governor Hamilton, of Pennsylvania, held councils and made treaties with the Indians at Logstown, learning much of their condition -and designs.

The next, and probably the most important mission was that, before stated. of Washington to the French forts. Though then a young man, he was sent out by Governor Dinwiddie, of Virginia in 1753. At that time the common boundary between. Pennsylvania and Virginia not being ascertained accurately, Virginia claimed all the territory at and surrounding the head of the Ohio. Washington 'reached Will's creek on the 14th of November, 1753, and there made his final preparation, passing the junction of the Monongahela and Allegheny and thence reaching Logstown on the right bank of the Ohio. From this point with three attendants he travelled northward to Venango, and thence to Fort LeBoueff, on French creek, where he delivered to the commandant his letter from Governor Dinwiddie. It was on his return from the French fort that our country had nearly lost the services of Washington, in the Revolution and in civil life. On the 28th of December, compelled to cross the Allegheny by a raft, made with difficulty with a single hatchet, by himself and Mr. Gist, his only, companion, Washington was thrown into the Allegheny in deep water by the force of the ice against his pole, and he and Mr. Gist barely escaped to Wainwright's island, (its modern name,) two miles above the junction of the rivers, where they passed the night. The channel on the eastern side which they crossed was open in the 20's, except where crossed by a mill dam, at which the writer has often fished in his boyhood. It is now closed I believe. Washington says, in his journal: "The cold was so intensely severe Mr. Gist had all his fingers and some of his toes fozen, and the water was shut up so hard that we found no difficulty .in getting off the island on the ice in the morning."

It was now clear that France intended to hold the territory along the Ohio and at the junction of the rivers. This knowledge led Virginia, in April, 1754, to send out a small force under Col. Fry, to take possession of the junction and build a fort there. Lieut. Ward, with a few men was engaged in building the fort, when Contrecouer, as before stated, reached the junction with the large force already mentioned. Ward surrendered, and the French engaged in building Fort DuQuesne, named after the French Governor at Detroit.

Without entering into details, it may be said that Col. Fry having died, his Virginia command devolved on Major Washington, who after defeating a small force from DuQuesne, under Lieut. Jumonville, was in turn defeated by a larger force from the fort, compelled to surrender and to return to Virginia.

The death of Jumonville was, however, the source of great French detraction of Washington. In the articles of capitulation his death was termed assassination, on which great stress has been laid by French historians. The charge evidently grew out of the French terms used, and the imperfect translation of Captain Vanbraam, a Dutchman. An officer of the regiment present at the surrender wrote to a friend, "When Vanbraam returned with the French proposals we were obliged to take the sense of them from his mouth, it rained so hard that he could not give us a written translation of them, we could scarcely keep the candle lighted to read them by, and every officer there is ready to declare that there was no such word as assassination mentioned. The terms expressed were the death of Jumonville."

Great Britain now determined to dislodge the French. For this purpose, after great preparations, she sent forward theexpedition under General Braddock, with a portion of the flower of the British army. This unfortunate officer, on the 9th of July, 1755, was defeated with great slaughter near to the mouth of Turtle Creek, by the combined force of French and Indians from Fort DuQuesne, losing a large part of his army, himself mortally wounded and many of his finest officers killed.

The next attempt to dislodge the French was made by an army under General John Forbes in the year 1758. The army pursued a new route through Pennsylvania, by way of Bedford. An advance was sent forward in September, under the gallant Major Grant, who with his Highlanders, was defeated with terrible slaughter on the hill near the fort since known as Grant's hill. General Forbes with the main army reached DuQuesne on the 25th of November, 1758 to find it abandoned by the French, and largely destroyed by fire.

This was the last effort of the French to hold the head othe Ohio, but being in possession of Detroit and the Lakes their baleful influence over the Indians continued. In 1760, after the fall of Quebec and Niagara, the English army under General Amherst, still advancing, the French governor surrendered Detroit and Mackinaw. The treaty of Paris, in 1763, followed by which France ceded to Great Britain her pretention to Nova Scotia or Acadia, and Canada, and all her claim's east of the Mississippi river, except the Isle of Orleans.

But the indians continued hostile, and Pontiac the head of the Ottawas, and probably the greatest Indian chief of the last century in the year 1762 founded his great cofederacy of the western tribes - terminating in a general council at Ecores in April, 1763. His purpose was the extermination of the whites and the overthrow of the English power in the west. He waged war against the British for more than a year with great violence. As a consequence the entire western territory was unsafe to the
whites. The Indians laid siege to Fort Pitt, which succeeded Fort DuQuesne. It was to relieve this fort that Col. Henry Boquet and a force of about 500 men were sent by the Pennsylvania route. In August, 1763, the, Indians discovering his approach, ambushed his force at Bushy Run in Westmoreland county, but after a most sanguinary battle were defeated and Fort Pitt relieved. From thence in the autumn of 1764, Col. Boquet made his expedition against the Indians in the territory, now of the State of Ohio.

As his route passed directly over the Beaver plain, where Fort McIntosh was afterwards built and his journal minutely describes the country approaching and near to the fort a portion, of it may be inserted here, viz:

(1)"Things being thus settled the army decamped from Fort Pitt on Wednesday October 3, and marched about one mile and a half over a rich level country with stately timber to camp No. 2, a strong piece of ground pleasantly situated with plenty of water and food for cattle."

(1.) (REMARK.-Camp No.. 2, must have been about a half or three quarters of a mile below the old Penitentiary site.)

(2)Thursday, October 4 having proceeded about two miles, came to the Ohio at the beginning of the narrows, and from thence followed the course of the river along a flat gravelly beach, about six miles and a quarter with two islands on the left, the lowermost about six miles long, with a rising ground running across and gently sloping on both sides to its banks, which are high and upright. At the lower end of this island, the army left the river, marching through good land, broken with small hollows to camp No. 3 this day's march being nine miles and a quarter."

(2.)(REMARKS.-The route described as by the narrows and the islands on the left (Davis' and Nevilles,) and the departure at the foot of Nevilles prove conclusively that the march was on the right bank of the Ohio.)

(3) " Friday, October 5, in this day's march the army passed through Logstown, situated 17 miles, one half and 57 perches from Fort Pitt. This place was noted before the last war for the trade carried on there by the English and French, but its inhabitants, the Sbawanese and Delawares abandoned it in the year 1750. The lower town extended about sixty perches over a bottom to the foot of a low steep ridge on the Summit of which stood the upper town commanding a most agreeable prospect over the lower and quite across the Ohio, which is about 500 yards wide here, and by its majestic current adds much to the beauty of the place. Proceeding beyond Logstown through a fine country, interspersed with hills, rich valleys, watered by many rivulets and covered with stately timber, came to camp No. 4, on a level piece of ground with a thicket in the rear, a small precipice round the front with a run of water at the foot, and good food for cattle. This day's march was nine miles one-half and fiftythree perches."

3 (REMARKS.-This account conclusively establishes Logstown as on the north side of the Ohio, a fact confirmed by Hutchin's map, and the journals of Conrad Weiser (1748) and Frederick Post (1758.) Post's second journal (1758) states that the Indians had a large cornfield on the south side. This explains how a late impression has prevailed that Logstown was on the south side.)

(4) "Saturday, October 6, at about three miles distance came again to the Ohio, pursuing its course half a mile farther and then turning off over a steep ridge crossed the Big Beaver Creek, Which is twenty perches wide, the ford stony and pretty deep. It runs through a rich vale, with a pretty strong current, its banks high, the upland adjoining it very good, the timber tall and young."

4 (REMARKS.-The crossing was evidently just below where the Beaver toll bridge stands.)

(5) "About a mile below its confluence with the Ohio stood formerly a large town on the steep bank, built by the French of square logs, with stone chimneys for some of the Shawanese Delawares and Mingoes, who abandoned it in the year 1758, when the French abandoned Fort DuQuesne."

5 (REMARK.-This town stood about a half or two-thirds of a mile below Market street in Beaver on the property of the late David Minis.)

(6)"Near the fording of Beaver creek also stood about seven houses which were deserted and destroyed by the Indians after their defeat on Bushy Run, when they forsook all the remaining settlements in this part of the country as has been mentioned above."

(6)(REMARKS.-This hamlet was known as Sawkunk or Sawkung, and must have stood on the island at the mouth of the creek, or on the "Stone" property west side of the Big Beaver, as Frederick Post in his second journal (1758) says, that on leaving Sawkunk he crossed the Big Beaver going up to Fort DuQuesne.)

Camp No. .5, the journal of Boquet states, was seven miles one-fourth and 57 perches from the Big Beaver, the whole distance marched on the 6th of October being about twelve miles.

On the 8th of October- the army crossed the Little Beaver creek.

At this time (1764) the Big Beaver entered into the Ohio by two channels which were there in 1829 when the writer saw it.

The western, or smaller channel, an ordinary high water oulet, was seperated from the main channel by a large island, containing a few perches over twelve acres, which in 1792 was surveyed by Daniel Leet into two outlets.

This island was largely carried away, by the great flood of the 10th of February, 1832. Subsequent floods carried all away leaving it a stony bed, as it now appears, its fate being similar to that of' Killbuck (or Smoky Island) at the mouth of the Allegheny river, which when the writer knew it contained about seven or eight acres and was cultivated.

The relief of' Detroit by the British, and their possession of the lake region put an end to Pontiac's war.

The Indian troubles in the west however, did not cease, but culminated in 1774, in the war known as Lord Dunmore's. This scarcely had ended when a new cause fanned the embers of Indian hostility-the war of the Revolution. England, regardless of the ties of blood and the dictates of humanity, by every influence within her power, persuaded the savages to lift the tomahawk and sharpen the scalping knife against the colonists. Outrage and barbarity followed the Indian footsteps across the Ohio river, and even to and beyond the Allegheny mountains. The entire west became unsafe for white settlement.

It was during this period it became necessary to check their savage inroads, by forming a military department for the west, with headquarters at Fort Pitt. From September, 1775 until 1777 Fort Pitt had been occupied only by Virginia militia, about one hundred, under Capt. John Neville. On the first day of June, 1777, Brigadier General Edward Hand of the continental army, under the orders of Washington, reached Fort Pitt to form the military department for the west. Band projected several expeditions against the Indians, both north and west, but the difficulties of enlisting and maintaining troops in this quarter compelled their abandonment. It was Washington's design to reduce Detroit from this quarter, but the war on the Atlantic coast and the difficulty in the west prevented its accomplishment. General Hand was an able officer and did all in his power to carry the war into the Indian strongholds, but was met by obstacles on every hand. These were greatly increased by the desertion to the enemy of Alexander McKee, Matthew Elliott and the two Girtys, Simon and James, followed afterward by George Girty.

These men became implacable enemies of the colonists, making their headquarters at Detroit, thence visiting the Ohio territory, inciting the Indians against the whites; the Girtys even accompanying their incursions into the settlements across the Ohio river, and participating in their barbarities. These were made more brutally cruel by the inhuman order of Lieutenant-Governor Henry Hamilton, the British commandant at Detroit, who ordered the payment of a bounty for scalps, but none for prisoners. As a consequence, few prisoners were brought to Detroit, when scalps alone commanded a premium.

In this state of affairs General Hand was recalled, at his own request, in the spring of 1778, and Washington appointed, Brigadier General Lachlan McIntosh as his successor in the command at Fort Pitt. He was a Georgian, and an officer of great merit, esteemed by Washington, who regretted his departure from the east, and said of him:

"His firm disposition and equal justice, his assiduity and good understanding, added to his being a stranger to all parties in that quarter, pointed him out as a proper person."

Lachlan McIntosh was a son of John More McIntosh, chief of a branch of the Clan McIntosh, in Scotland, who with one hundred of his highland clansmen accompanied Governor James Oglethorpe to Georgia in 1736, and settled in what is now McIntosh county. Lachlan was born on the 17th day of March, 1725 near Inverness in Scotland. His early years were spent in various pursuits. While a clerk in Charleston, S. C., he was called, Setember 16, 1776, to the command of the first Georgia regiment, and subsequently was made Brigadier General of three regiments. He soon accepted a command in the central army under Washington, and while in this position. was sent, in 1778, to Fort Pitt. He reached Fort Pitt in August, 1778.

The narrative thus discovers the embarrassments which General McIntosh encountered in taking command of' the western department. Neither men nor the munitions of war could be easily had, and he was encompassed by hostile tribes, whose movements in a wild and uninhabited country, could not be foreseen or met. The redmen were led on also by whites even more savage, traitors to kin and country, and familiar with the affairs of the colonists. The savages lay in wait at every turn, coming when least expected, killing and scalping men, women and children.

Washington's designs on Detroit from Fort Pitt being prevented by the condition of affairs on the Atlantic and in the west, his instructions to McIntosh embraced only expeditions against the western Indians. McIntosh also had Detroit in view, but was without orders or means. The season being late, provisions scarce, and enlistments tardy, he was retarded in his movements, and concluded to prepare for future operations. This he did by erecting a fort nearer to the point from which he could march either westward into Ohio, or northward to Detroit. His own account is found in his letter to Vice-President Bryan, dated Fort Pitt, December 29th, 1778. He says:

"That notwithstanding the season was so late that we could not get sufficiency of supplies, and the men so tedious before they came and joined me, with many other difficulties I had to encounter, I erected a good, strong fort for the reception and security of prisoners and stores upon the Indian side of the Ohio, below Beaver Creek, with barracks for a regiment; and another -upon Muskingum river where Col. Boquet had one formerly, near Tuscarawas, about one hundred miles from this place, which I expect will keep the savages in awe, and secure the peace of the frontiers effectually in this quarter hereafter, if they are well supplied; and will also facilitate any further enterprises that may be attempted that way."

The fort on the Tuscarawas was named Laurens," after Henry Laurens, President of Congress.

This letter proves that Fort McIntosh was of much greater importance than Col. Brodhead was disposed to accord to it. Indeed from his letter, it is evident that Brodhead, who was subordinate to McIntosh was animated by,a personal feeling, which sometimes arises in the army. His personal difficulty with Col. Gibson, and retirement fiom command of Fort Pitt indicate a possible want of good temper. In his letter to General Armstrong dated at Fort Pitt, April 16, 1779, he said:.

"And it was owing to the General's (McIntosh's) determination to take Detroit, the very romantic building called Fort McIntosh, was built by the hands Of hundreds who would rather have fought than wrought."

In Brodhead's letter to General Greene, August 2, 1779, he writes:

"General McIntosh was not regardless of the stores, in some respects, in others he was. The hobby horse he built at Beaver creek, occasioned a delay of military operations. and consequently an useless consumption of stores, &c."

But Brodhead, who succeeded General McIntosh in the command, found by two years and a half' experience, it was harder to conduct military operations in a wilderness, and where men and munitions were difficult to be had, than his condemnation of McIntosh warranted.

In order to make Fort McIntosh more easy of communication and supply, General McIntosh cut a road from Fort Pitt to Fort McIntosh. This was essential to his plan of supplying the latter for future operations, and must have been opened on the south side of the Ohio. The old route by which Col. Boquet marched in 1764, was utterly unsafe to supply trains. Such wagon trains would have been constantly exposed to the attacks of the savages, who were always found on the north side and alert on the lookout. While it is not stated where the road was opened, it is quite certain it was the same that comes down to the Ohio through the gap directly opposite to the fort. This road was used by Brodhead when he
came into command, and has since been known as the
"Brodhead road."

Fort McIntosh is described by Arthur Lee, one of the commissioners of the United States, to treat with the western Indians who reached the fort in December, 1784, the treaty being concluded there in January, 1785.

This description is contained in his journal, and as parts are not only interesting, but directly connected with the fort, they may be introduced here. He says:

"0n the 17th of December, 1784, we embarked on the Monongahela and soon, entered the Ohio on our way to Fort McIntosh."

After describing Montours Island, (Neville's) and Logstown, he proceeds:

(8)"From Logstown to the mouth of Beaver creek, is (many) miles, and from thence to Fort McIntosh one mile. This fort is built of well hewed logs with four bastions, its figure is an irregular square, the face to the river being longer than the side to the land. It is about equal to a square of fifty yards, is well built and strong against musketry; but the opposite side of the river commands it entirely, and a single piece of artillery from tbence would reduce it."

(8)(REMARKS-This is true, but it must be remembered, that there was no enemy to approach the fort on that side. It was subject to attack only from the same side with itself and there it was strong against musketry)

He continues:

"This fort was built by us during the war, and is therefor not noted on Hutchin's map. The place was formerly a large Indian settlement, and French trading place. There are peach trees still remaining. It is a beautiful plain extending about two miles along the river and one back to the hills, surrounded on the east by Beaver creek; and on the west by a small run, (Two Mile) which meanders through a most excellent piece of meadow ground full of shell bark hickory, black walnut and oak. About one mile and a half up the Beaver Creek there enters a small but perennial stream (Brady run) very fit for a mill seat."

On the 28th of December he says:

"Some of the officers getting merry late at night, ordered the artillery company to draw out the cannon and fire them in the midst of the garrison. One of them was accordingly fired. The commanding officer immediately ordered the whole garrison under arms, and the artillery officer to countermand the firing; he refused, upon which the other ordered him under arrest. The next officer in command of the artillery walking aside told the men to do as they thought, proper; they hesitated to obey the commanding officer, and he ran his sword through one of' them. This soon produced a withdrawal of the artillery. In the meantime the troops were all under arms, and drunken officers at the head of' companies were giving contrary orders, swearing at and confounding the men. Upon this General Butler and myself sent for Major T---, the commanding officer, Col. Harinan being at Fort Pitt, and directed him to order the garrison immediately to their quarters; which being done the tumult subsided."

Others speak of the fort as a regular stockade work fended by six pieces of cannon and having a covered way to the river for water. The southwest bastion stood within twenty or twenty-five feet of the termination of the present Market street, in Beaver.

In the autumn of 1778, the Indians were very much troublesome. They besieged Fort Laurens and kept it in constant alarm. The troops there under the command of Col. Gibson, were reduced to great straits, living on herbs, and boiled hides, and were relieved by General McIntosh, when suffering starvation.

A letter from Genl. McIntosh to Col. Locbry, Lieut. of Westmoreland county dated Januarv 29, 1779, says:

"I am informed that Capt. Clark, of the eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, who was sent to command an escort to Fort Laurens, as he was returning with a sergeant and fourteen men, three miles this side of that fort, was attacked by Simon Girty and a party of Mingoes, who killed two of our men and wounded four and took one prisoner. I am also informed that a large party of the same people are set off to strike the inhabitants about Ligonier and Blackleg creek, and send you this express to inform you of it, that you may acquaint the neighborhood and be on your guard."

As a consequence of hardships, disappointments and vexatious delays, the spring of 1779 found Genl. McIntosh sick and weary of his command, and he was recalled at his own request. He returned to Philadelphia, in April, 1779.

Daniel Brodhead, Colonel of the 8th Pennsylvania Regiment succeeded him. His letters portray the difficulties and dangers attending his command. In a postscript to a letter to General Washington, dated at Fort Pitt, July 31, 1779, he writes:

"I have just learned that two soldiers have lately been killed at Fort Laurens, two boys on Wheeling Creek, two boys taken on Raccoon Creek, and one man slightly wounded, and a soldier last evening killed at Fort McIntosh, and a soldier slightly wounded. The inhabitants are so intent on going to Kentuck and the Falls of the Ohio, I fear I shall have few volunteers."

September 23d, 1779, writing from Pittsburgh to President Reed, the Colonel says:

"My officers and soldiers are exceedingly ragged, the soldiers naked, and I am unfortunately greatly distressed for want of clothing and money to relieve their necessities. Insomuch that unless more regard is paid to the aid of the troops, I must shortly request his Excellency, the Commander-in-Chief, to appoint another person to take the command, and give me leave to hand him my commission."


"If our State or its Legislature have not yet allowed a greater bounty for recruits, I fear most of my good men whose terms are expired, will enter the Virginia corps."

In another letter from Pittsburgh to President Reed, April 27, 1780, referring to four companies to be raised for the defence of the frontier, he says:

"I hope these companies when raised will be ordered to this district where the enemy are remarkably hostile. Between forty and fifty men, women and children have been killed and taken from what are now called the counties of Yoghagania, Monongalia and Ohio, since the first of March, but no -damage has been done in the county of Westmoreland."

These counties embraced Fayette, Greene, Washington and Allegheny, and were so named by Virginia when she claimed this region, and attempted to govern it through Dr. Connoly and his lieutenants.

In numerous letters Colonel Brodhead made similar complaints of the destitution of his troops.

The Secretary of War, writing to President Reed, July 31, 1780. said :

"Colonel Brodhead's apprehensions of being reduced to the necessity of using force to obtain provisions, seem to be too justly founded."

Writing to President Reed September 16, 1780, Colonel Brodhead said: "The whole garrison went out led by Sergeants, who being asked the cause answered, that the troops had been five days without bread." On a promise of relief, they withdrew to quarters.

But the necessity soon came, and in his order, September, 21, 1780, Brodhead instructed Capt. Sam Brady to use compulsion to obtain food rather than that the troops should suffer. The condition of the troops in the Western Department, including Fort McIntosh, was evidently most deplorable.

In reference to the Indians, Colonel Brodhead, writing to General Washington, March 8, 1780, said:

"The savages have already begun their hostilities; last Sunday they killed five men at a sugar camp on Raccoon Creek, and took prisoners three boys and three girls."

Again, May 11th, 1780, he wrote to Major Slaughter:

"The county of Westmoreland is again infested with the cursed Mingoes. The inhabitants are flying from every quarter, and it will be necessary for you to keep a look out where you are. I have not a sufficient party that can, at any rate, be spared from the garrison either to pursue or waylay the villians, and I shall be much obliged to you for sending fifteen or twenty of your best men to enable me to send out a sufficient party for a few days."

In a letter to Timothy Pickering, July 21, 1780, he gives an account of an attack upon a body of Indians who had crossed the Ohio, a short distance above the present town of Industry. He said:

"A few days ago I received intelligence of a party of thirty odd Wyandot Indians having crossed the Ohio five miles below Fort McIntosh, and that they had hid their canoes upon the shore. I immediately ordered out two parties of the nearest militia to go in search of them, and cover the harvesters. At the same time Capt. McIntyre was detailed with a party to form an ambuscade opposite the enemies' craft. Five men who were reaping in a field discovered the Indians, and presuming their number was small, went out to attack them, but four of them were immediately killed, and the other taken prisoner, before the militia were collected. But they were attacked by Capt. McIntyre's party on the river, and many of them were killed and wounded, two canoes were sunk, and the prisoner retaken, but the water was so deep our men could not find the bodies of the savages, and therefore the number killed can not be ascertained. The Indians left in their craft two guns, six blankets, eleven tomahawks, eleven paint bags, eight ear wheels, a large brass kettle, and many other articles. The Indians informed the prisoner that fifteen Wyandots were detached to Hanna's town; upon receiving this information, another party was immediately detached up the Allegheny river with two Delaware Indians to take the tracks, and make pursuit, but as the party has not yet returned, I cannot inform you of its success."

In a subsequent letter of September 17, 1780, to Col. David Shepherd, he says:

"They, (the messengers,) likewise inform me, that in the attack made by Capt. McIntyre's party on the Wyandot warriors, eighteen or nineteen were killed, and some are still missing."

The party of Indians ambuscaded by Capt. McIntyre, must have crossed at "Safe Harbor," nearly opposite the present town of Industry. There is there on the south side a long stretch of deep water.

Throughout 1780 and 1781, the Indians continued hostile.

Writing from Fort Pitt to General Washington, Aug. 23d, 1781, Col. Brodhead said an expedition against Sandusky was in contemplation, and the troops would rendezvous at Fort McIntosh, on the 4th and 5th days of September. Next day he wrote to Capt. John Clark, commanding Fort McIntosh:

"I have this moment received certain intelligence that the enemy are coming against us in great force, and that particularly against your post. You will immediately put your garrison in the best posture of defence, and lay in as large quantities of water as you can, clear the bank from about you, and receive them coolly. They intend to decoy your garrison, but you will guard against their stratagem, and defend the fort to the last extremity."

It does not appear, however, that the attack was made.

In the summer of 1781, quite a breeze sprang up at Fort Pitt between Col. Brodhead and a large number of officers in his command, headed by Col. John Gibson. They disputed his authority, as the chief commander of the fort. Charges were made against him, and a court martial asked for.

In his letter to General Washington, dated at Fort Pitt, September 6, 1781, he says:

"Col. Gibson still continues to counteract me, and the officers -wbo favor his claim refuse my orders, others refuse his, and things are in the utmost confusion."

He adds in a postscript:

"I have arrested Col. Gibson on August 30th, for assuming the chief command at this fort, contrary to the articles and discipline of war, thereby inciting and encouraging meetings and sedition amongst a number of officers of this department."

On or about the same date, September 6th, 1781, Brodhead resigned the command, and soon afterwards Col. John Gibson was assigned to the department by Gen'l Washington. Brodhead, however, was a good officer and merited a better fate than that which befell him at Fort Pitt. The real causes which led to his differences with Col. Gibson and a portion of his officers may not be fully developed at this late day, and probably need not be. He successfully conducted several expeditions against the Indians both north and west, but the inadequacy of means at Fort Pitt limited them to a small scale.

Col. Gibson was soon superseded by Brigadier General, Wm. Irvine, an officer of merit, who continued in command until after the close of the Revolutionary War.

A few extracts from his letter to Gen'l Washington, dated at Fort Pitt, December, 1781, will give some idea of the state of affairs there and in the west. He says:.

" I never saw troops cut so truly deplorable a figure. Indeed when I arrived no one would believe from their appearance that they were soldiers, and it would be difficult to determine whether they were white men, and though they do not yet come up to my wishes, they are some better."

He also refers to the enormous consumption of public stores, and says the magazine was nearly exhausted.

He gives an account of the failure of Gen'l Geo. Roger Clark's expedition against the western Indians from the Falls of the Ohio.

Capt. Craig, (Major Isaac), was forty days in returning from the Falls with a remnant of the artillery, throwing away the carriages on account of the low water. Clark was unable to prosecute his expedition for want of men, and his provisions were largely spoiled. Great fear arose of a force from Detroit.

Col. Loughrey, (Lieut. of Westmoreland County,) on his way to join Cark with 100 men and a small detachment left by Clark at the mouth of the Miami to meet Loughrey, were waylaid by the Indians and British, and all killed and taken, not a man escaping.

In this letter Gen'l Irvine suggested the abandonment of Fort Pitt, except a block house on the north bastion, and the building of a fort at the mouth of Chartier's creek to supersede Fort Pitt and Fort McIntosh. He was fearful the enemy from Detroit might surprise the latter and make it the means of laying the country waste.

No fort was built at Chartier's, and the enemy never came from Detroit, yet the letter gives a gloomy and no doubt a truthful account of the affairs in the western department at that time.

As the Indians were gradually pressed westward, the occupation of Fort McIntosh became less important, and in 1783, was suffered to go out of repair, besides suffering from the lawless trespasses of the settlers passing down the Ohio on their way to Kentucky. Brigadier General William Irvine was still in command at Fort Pitt. The troops having left, it was intended to let the fort go into the possession of the State of Pennsylvania, the State their having a reservation of 3,000 acres at the mouth of the Big Beaver. Accordingly the following instructions were given by Gen'l Irvine on the 23rd of September, 1783.

"Instructions for Wm. Lee, Sergeant, and John AcClure:

You are to take immediate charge of the fort buildings and public property now remaining at Fort McIntosh, for and in behalf of the State of Pennsylvania, (except two pieces of iron cannon, and some water casks, the property of the United States,) and three thousand acres of land reserved for the use of the State: when the tract is surveyed your will
attend and make yourselves acquainted with the lines; in the meantime you will consider it extending two miles up and down the river, and two miles back; you will take care that no waste is committed, or timber cut down or carried off the premises, and prohibit buildings to be made or any persons making settlements or to reside theron, or from even hunting
encampments; nor are any more families to be permitted than your own to live in the barracks, or on any part of the tract. In case of necessity for reoccupying the post for the United States, you are to give up the fort to the orders of the commanding Cotinental officer at this place, retaining only such part of the building as may be necessary for you to live in. But if the troops should be so numerous as not to afford room for you, you will, in that case, occupy the buildings without the works, or build for yourselves in some convenient place, but you will on no account whatever quit the place without orders from the Executive Council of Pennsylvania, or their agents, so to do, whose directions you will thereafter obey in all matters relative to said post, and tract of land. In case of lawless violence or persons attempting to settle by force, or presuming to destroy anything on the premises, you will apply to Michael Hoofnagle, Esq., or some other Justice of the Peace, for Westmoreland county.

" For your care and trouble in performing in the several matters herein required, you may put in grain and labor any quantity of ground not exceeding one hundred acres, and keep and raise stock to the number of fifty head of horned cattle and eight horses. You will govern yourselves by these instructions, until the pleasure, of the Honorable Council is signified to you, and you will give up peaceable possession to them or their order, whenever they think proper."Given under my hand at Fort Pitt, September 23rd, 1783."

W-M. IRVINE, B. Gen'l.

We severally engage to conform to the foregoing instructions to us by Gen'l Irvine."


The 3,000 acres of reserved land referred to form an interesting history connected with the fort and will be explained hereafter.

John Rose, the witness to this paper, known as Major Rose, was an interesting character. His real name was Henri Gustav Rosenthal, a Russian nobleman. Involved in a duel, he killed his antagonist and fled his country, coming to America. He was a fine looking young gentleman, spoke the French language, and having studied surgery, became surgeon of the 7th Pennsylvania Regiment. Owing to jealousies he resigned and went into the navy, was taken prisoner, exchanged, returned to Pennsylvania, reentered the line and finally became aid to General Irvine at Fort Pitt, performed duty there, and in the fall of 1783 became secretary of the Council of Censors of Pennsylvania.

During all this time he kept his secret. In 1784, having received immunity from his sovereign, he sailed for Europe; before sailing having revealed his secret to General Irvine.

Fort McIntosh was fated to remain not long unoccupied by the United States troops. In 1784 the government concluding to treat with the western Indians it became necessary to reoccupy the fort. The treaty was contemplated at first to be held at Cuyahoga (now Cleveland) but was changed to Fort McIntosh. This can be told in the words of Col. Josiah Harmars' letter to President Dickinson, viz :

"Camp near Fort Pitt on the Indian shore, the western side of the Allegheny river, December 5, 1784.

Sir:-I have the honor to inform your Excellency and the Hon. Council, of the arrival of the first detachment of Pennsylvania troops, composed of Captain Douglass' company of artillery and Captain Finney's company of infantry at this place on the 18th of October last.

The second detachment, composed of Captain Zeigler and Captain McCurdy's companies of infantry arrived here on the 29th, of the same month.

We have remained in this position 'till today, in hourly expectation of the commissioners; they have just arrived, and upon consultation, considering the advanced season of the year, the difficulties of supplies, expense of transportation, etc., to Cuyahoga, they have resolved to hold the treaty at Fort McIntosh, thirty miles distant from Fort Pitt down the Ohio river.

In consequence of their resolve, the troops marched this morning from their encampment for Fort McIntosh, the tents, baggage, etc., are to go by water. Mr. Alexander Lowry, messenger to the commissioners, was dispatched this day to Cuyahoga with an invitation to the Indians to assemble at Fort McIntosh.

The fort is in very bad order and will require considerable repairs before the troops can have comfortable winter quarters."

The commissioners on part of the United States were George Rogers Clark, Richard Butler and Arthur Lee. Those on part of Pennsylvania were Col. Samuel I. Atlee and Col. Francis Johnston.

The treaty consummated by the United States is not important to the present subject, excepting its first article, which provided for the surrender by the Indians of all prisoners " white and black " held by them. Many of the prisoners were delivered at Fort McIntosh in 1785, and among them, an early and most respected citizen of Beaver, the late James Lyon, Esq. He had been captured when quite a child in the year 1782 near to Turtle Creek, Westmoreland county, upon his father's farm, through which the Pittsburgh and Greensburg turnpike afterwards ran.

The treaty by the State is thus referred to by Col. Harmar in a letter to President Dickenson, dated at Fort McIntosh, February 8, 1785.

" The honorable the State commissioners Col. Atlee and Col. Johnston, by this time I imagine must have arrived at Philadelphia, by whom your excellency and the honorable council will hear of the satisfactory conclusion of the treaty with the Indians at this post.

This garrison is at length by hard fatigue of the troops, put into tolerable order. I beg to observe to your excellency and the honorable council that unless some person is directed to remain here, that immediately upon my marching from hence, it will be demolished by the emigrants to Kentucky.

Previous to our arrival here they had destroyed the gates, drawn all the nails from the roofs, taken off all the boards and plundered it of every article. I would therefore recommend (for the benefit of the State) to your Excellency and Honorable Council to adopt some mode for its preservation, otherwise immediately upon leaving it, it will again go to ruin."

A confirmation of this opinion is found in a paragraph of the old Pittsburgh Gazette of June 2 1787, entitled "Growth of Travel" lately republished viz:

"Since the tenth of October, 1786 to May 12th, 1787, there has passed down the Ohio river for Kentucky 177 boats, 2,689 people, 1,333 horses, 766 cattle, 102 wagons and one phaeton. The account was taken from a journal kept by the adjutant at Fort Harmar at Muskingum. A number passed in the night unobserved."

The intention to remove from the fort soon led to a petition of David Duncan and John Finley, Indian traders, dated February 26, 1785, to the President and Council to take charge of the fort, with license to trade with the Indians.

But the troops continued to occupy and Col. Harmar, on the 24th of May, 1785 reported the following officers at the fort, viz :

JOSAIAH HARMAR, Lieutenant Colonel.
WM. MCCURDY, Captain.
JOSEPH ASHTON, Lieutenant.
THOMAS DOYLE, Lieutenant.

On the 1st of June, 1785, Col. Harmar reported at present fit for duty in the infantry 156 men, present sick five; of the artillery present fit for duty forty, present sick two.

The lovers of sport will be interested in the following letter of Col. Harmar, dated Fort McIntosh, June 21st, 1785, to Col. Francis Johnston.

"I wish you were here to view the beauties of Fort MeIntosh. What think, you of pike of 25 pounds, perch 15 to 20 pounds, catfish 40 pounds, bass, pickerel, sturgeon, &e. You certainly would enjoy yourself. It is very fortunate there is such an abundance of fish, as the contractor for this place sometime past has failed in his supplies of beef.

"This would be a glorious season for Col. Wood, or any extravagant lover of strawberries, the earth is most abundantly covered with then; we have them in such plenty, that I am almost surfeited with them; the addition of fine rich cream is not lacking."

Another interesting fact connected with Fort McIntosh, was the visit in 1785, of the Commissioners then running the western boundary of' Pennsylvania.

On the 25th of August, the joint Commissioners of Virginia and Pennsylvania, consisting of Andrew Ellicott and Joseph Neville, for Virginia, and David Rittenhouse and Andrew Porter, for Pennsylvania, reported that they had finished the meridian line from the southwest corner of Pennsylvania to the river Ohio, and marked it by cutting a vista over all the principal hills, felling and deadening trees through the lower grounds, and placing stones marked on the east side " P," and on the west side " V, " accurately on the meridian line. That part of Virginia on the west side is now known as the "Pan Handle."

Under a resolution of Pennsylvania, of May 5th, 1785, David Rittenhouse, Andrew Porter and Andrew Ellicott, were appointed Commissioners to continue the western boundary, north from the Ohio river, to the northwest corner of the State on Lake Erie.

The Cominissioners began their survey from the Ohio, August 23rd, 1785. On the 29th, of August, Messrs. Porter and Ellicott visited Fort McIntosh, by water, and in a few days Dr. McDowell and Major Finney returned the visit. On the 11th of September, the Commissioners were visited also by Col. Harmar and Major Doughty.

The precise time when Fort McIntosh was abandoned by the troops is not known, but from a letter of Col. Harmar, dated October, 22d, 1785, it was probably in November, 1785, the troops then being about to be sent down the Ohio to protect the Treaty Commissioners at the mouths of the Muskingum, Miami and other places

Among the incidents connected with Fort McIntosh, I have learned that four soldiers were shot for desertion. I have found no record of the execution, yet there seems to be no doubt of the fact, Though true I would prefer not to notice the incident. Desertion in time of war cannot be excused, yet, when we read the letters of Col. Brodhead and Gen'l Irvine, detailing the want, suffering, starvation, and the ragged and abject condition of the men in this department, sympathy for these poor creatures, who suffered the extreme penalty of the law, will arise. The heart yields its better feeling in spite of the necessity. I am I glad I do not know their names to perpetuate their fatal error. It is painful to think that the prosperity we now enjoy has been secured at the expense of so much suffering and distress.

The following report to Congress throws light on Fort McIntosh, and it is also of general interest:


Extract from the Journal of Congress

"Thursday, OCTOBER 2nd, 1788. The Committee cosisting Of Mr. Howard, Mr. Few, Mr. Dayton, Mr. Gillman and Mr. Hemington, appointed to make full inquiry into the Proceedings of the Department of War, beg leave to report and present to the view of Congress a summary statment of the various branches of the Department of War.

Of the stations occupied by the troops on the frontiers:

FORT FRANKLIN, on French creek, near a post formerly called Venango, is a small strong fort, with one cannon, was erected in 1787, and garrisoned with one company. The excellent construction and execution Of this work reflects honor in the abilities and industry of Capt. Heart, who garrisons it with his company and was his own engineer. This post was established for the purpose of defending the fontiers of Pennsylvania, which are much exposed by the facility with which the Indians can cross from Lake Erie, either to French creek, or the Juddaghue Lake, and the Conewango branch, and thence descend the rapid river Allegheny.

FORT PITT has only an officer and a few men to receive the supplies and dispatches forwarded to the troops by the Secretary of War.

FORT MCINTOSH is ordered to be demolished, and a blockhouse to he erected in lieu thereof; a few miles up the Big Beaver Creek, to protect the communication up the same, and also to cover the country.

FORT HARMER, at the mouth of the Muskingum, is a well constructed fort, with five bastions and three cannon mounted. It is at present garrisoned with four companies, and is considered as headquarters, being conveniently situated to reinforce up or down the river Ohio.

FORT STEUBEN, at the rapids of the Ohio, on the west side, is a well constructed small fort, with one cannon, and is garrisoned with a major and two companies. This post is established to cover the country from the incursions of the Indians, and it serves as a post of communication to Fort Vincennes on the Wabash.

FORT VINCENNES, on the Wabash, is a work erected during the year 1787, and has four small brass cannon. It is garrisoned by a major and two companies. It is established to curb the incursions of the Wabash Indians into Kentucky county, and to prevent the usurpation of the Federal lands, the fertility of which has been too strong a temptation to the lawless people of the frontiers, who posted themselves there, in the year 1786. Brigadier General Harmar, by order of Congress, formed an expedition in August, 1787, for the purpose of dispossessing them, but previous to his arrival, most of the intruders had abandoned their settlements."

The Lake mentioned in this report, and spelled Judagghue, is evidently Chautauqua. The blockhouse referred to was built on the little stream emptying into the Big Beaver, below New Brighton, still known as "Blockhouse Run." This blockhouse was commanded by Lieut. Nathan McDowell, in 1789.

Captain, Jonathan Heart, mentioned as having erected Fort Franklin, was a distinguished soldier, a graduate of Yale, with high honors. Beginning at Bunker's Hill, he performed valuable services in the Revolutionary War, and was one of the few officers retained in the service after the close of the war with England. He marched with his, company from Connecticut, and reached Fort Pitt October 12th, 1785, keeping a full journal of his march. Soon after his arrival, he was ordered to Fort, McIntosh, where he remained with his company until the 25th of October, when he left for the mouth of the Muskingum, and assisted in building Fort Harmar there. After various services, he was ordered to Franklin, on French Creek.

Although pressed westward, the Indians did not cease their depredations eastward. The Pittsburgh Gazette, of July, 1788, contains a notice by Richard Butler, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, warning the people that some twenty Chippewas and Ottawas had passed Detroit on their way to war.

The Gazette of the same month, states the capture of Col. Joseph Michel and three others, by the Indians, about twenty miles below the Big Miami. Their boat was seized and plundered. They were ransomed by Scotch and French traders from Detroit.

Even so late as July, 1789, the Indians came within two miles of Pittsburgh. The following is from the Gazette of July 2nd, 1789:

"Yesterday was brought to this place and buried, the bodies of two young men named Arthur Graham and Aleander Campbell, who had gone out the evening before to fish. They were killed by the savages about two miles from this place."

The Indian war still continued. Generals Harmar and St. Clair were both defeated by the Indians within the Ohio territory, the former in 1790, and the latter in 1791.

It was not until the Indians were defeated on the Maumee, by General Anthony Wayne, in 1794, and peace concluded with them by him in 1795, that the Ohio country and Western Pennsylvania became free from their incursions.

General Wayne had encamped with his army in the winter of 1792-3, on the land now of the Harmony Society, below Economy, in Beaver county, his encampment being known as "Legionville." His purpose was to subject his army to strict military discipline, the want of which was believed to be the cause of Harmar and St. Clair's defeats. In April, 1793, he moved his army to Fort Washington, (now Cincinnati,) remaining there until the spring of 1794.

Having related the prominent facts connected with Fort McIntosh and its times, it is proper now to state the circumstances leading to the treaty of the State with the Indians there in January, 1785.

By a treaty made at Fort Stanwix, (now Rome, N. Y.,) on the 5th of November, 1768, between the Penns and the Six Nations, the Indian title was extinguished westward, by lines which became the eastern boundary of the territory included in the next treaty with the Six Nations, made at Fort Stanwix, on the 23d of October, 1784, by Commissioners of the State of Pennsylvania. There were certain tribes in Western Pennsylvania not parties to the treaty of 1784, chiefly Wyandots and Delaware, then actually occupying the western territory. It became necessary to obtain the relinquishment of their title, in order to quiet the Indian claim to the lands included in the treaty of October 23, 1784. The treaty of the Pennsylvania Commissioners with the Wyandots and Delawares at Fort McIntosh, terminated in a deed dated January 21, 1785, conveying the Indian title by the same boundaries contained in the treaty of October 23d, 1784, viz:

"Beginning on the south side of the river Ohio, where the western boundary of the State crosses the river, near Shingo's old town, at the mouth of Beaver Creek, and thence by a due north line to the end of the forty-second and beginning of the forty-third degree of north latitude; thence by a due east line separating the forty-second and forty-third degrees of north latitude to the east side of the east branch of the river Susquehanna; thence by the bounds of the late purchase made at Fort Stanwix, the 5th of November, Anno Domini 1768, as follows: Down the said east branch of the Susquehanna, on the east side thereof, till it comes opposite the mouth of a creek called by the Indians Awandae, and across the river and up said creek, on the south side thereof, all along the range of hills called Burnett's Hills by the English, and by the Indians, on the north side of them to the head of a creek which runs into the west branch of the Susquehanna, which creek is by the Indians called Tyadachton, and by the Pennsylvanian, Pine Creek; and down the said creek on the west side thereof, to the said west branch of the Susquehanna; then crossing the said river and running up the same on the south side thereof, the several courses thereof to the fork of the same river, which lies nearest to a place on the river Ohio, (Allegheny,) called Kittanning, and from the fork by a straight line to Kittanning aforesaid, and then down the said river Ohio, by the several courses thereof, to where the boundary of the said State of Pennsylvania crosses the same, at the place of beginning."

It will be noticed that by this description the western boundary was supposed to cross at the mouth of the Big Beaver. The line as actually run in 1785 was found to cross near the mouth of Little Beaver Creek. This error of position caused difficulty in making the donation surveys.

The fork on the west branch of the Susquehanna from which the line ran directly to Kittanning is known as the Canoe Fork. It is probable that the creek called Awandac by the Indians gave name to Towanda in Bradford county.

The history of the reservation of the 3,000 acres of the State at the mouth of the Big Beaver including Fort MeIntosh referred to in General Irvine's instructions to Sergeant Lee and John McClure is this.

The surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown and the provisional treaty with Great Britain of November 30, 1782, left no doubt of a final treaty of peace. With this expectation, and that of the final extinguishment of the Indian title, the Assembly of Pennsylvania passed the Act of 12th March, 1783. It appropriated the territory north of the Ohio and west of the Allegheny river and Connewango creek, to the use of the soldiers of the Pennsylvania Revolutionary line; the northern part for donations for their services, and the southern for the redemption of the certificates of depreciation from the continental currency, given for their pay. The dividing line ran due west from Mogulbughtiton a creek above Kittanning, passing about six or seven miles south of New Castle, Lawrence county. Out of the southern part, the State reserved to herself two tracts of 3,000 acres each, one at the mouth of the Allegheny river west side, and the other at the mouth of the Big Beaver, including Fort McIntosh. The Beaver reservation was surveyed in April or May, 1785, by Alexander McClain, Esq. This was the prospective survey referred to in General Irvine's instructions to Lee and McClure.

It was on the latter reservation the town and outlots of Beaver were surveyed by Daniel Leet in November, 1792. Owing to the absence of the Commissioners appointed to superintend the survey, the survey of'Leet was void, and an Act of confirmation was passed the 6th of March, 1793.

There is a fact locally interesting, connected with the command of Col. Brodhead at Fort McIntosh. He then became acquainted with the Falls of the Big Beaver. These falls, upper, middle and lower, are fifty-two feet altogether, as was ascertained by the United States Engineers, between 1820 and 1830. Col. Brodhead became Surveyor General of Pennsylvania, and on the very day of the passage of the Act of the 3rd of April, 1792, opening these lands to survey and settlement, he took out two warrants for the lands opposite the middle falls, on Walnut Bottom run. On these tracts the town of Beaver Falls now rests. One warrant was in the name of Joseph Williams, on which a survey of 410 acres, and six percent allowance for roads was made. The other was in the name of William Barker, on which a survey of 440 acres and the allowance was made. The actual content of both was 898 acres. The latter tract came down to a red oak on the west bank of the Beaver about twenty-five yards above the old Fallston dam, and ran up to a black oak, which stood near to where the cotton factory stood. This black oak was the lower corner of the Joseph William's survey. The writer was present at the surveys of these tracts in the year 1833, pending litigation.

Thus we have seen that, almost forgotten by the public, and its site scarcely recognizable now, Fort McIntosh was once a place of note, and the scene of important operations and events. Little over a century has passed, and few now can estimate the change. Then a wilderness where red men roamed and the tomahawk and scalping knife gleamed-now a population of fifty thousand souls fill the small county of Beaver, crowded with mills and factories.

What spot more worthy of a monument than the site of Fort McIntosh ?